Until the 1960s, increasing the livestock population and expanding the area under feed and fodder crops have been the main trends. As a result, the conversion of natural habitats to pastures and crop land has been rapidly growing. Conserv Biol 20(4):1262â1271. de Merode, E., K. Homewood, and G. Cowlishaw. 2004. The value of bushmeat and other wild foods to rural households living in extreme poverty in Democratic Republic of Congo. United Nations. 2007. World population prospects: The 00 revision, medium variant.
Annu Rev Anthropol 35(1):361â378. Horn, R. 2004. The families that own Asia: Thailand. TIME Asia Magazine, February 23. Horrigan, L., R. S. Lawrence, and P. Walker. 2002. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. The drivers for the most part are eco- logical, political, economic, and social forces operating at local, national, regional, and global levels. Intensified food-animal production has epidemiological consequences (see Box 3-1). Natural herds often have a low rate of reproduction and production.
Zoonotic Bacterial Diseases Share this page Zoonotic bacterial diseases are the disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice-versa. the causative organisms can be viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. The efforts are also minimal when governments or governance entities negotiate international treaties for activities or interests not specifically geared toward protecting human and animal health, but which may impact them. Limitations in conventional approaches to diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, while not directly driving emerging disease events, can contribute to spread within the population.
However, increasing fears of zoonotic disease emergence and spread underscore the lack of confidence in the legal, regulatory, and enforcement mechanisms es- tablished by nations to address the political, economic, and cultural trends that exacerbate zoonotic threats. With animals congregated and the focus on I profit, avoiding disease is important in minimizing losses.
Mathias, E., and C. M. McCorkle. 2004. Traditional livestock healers. The Rockefeller and Ford foundations made research investments to improve breeding varieties combined with expanded use of fertilizers, other chemical inputs, and irrigation. Pediatrics 122(4):876â886. Preston, R. L. 1987. The role of animal drugs in food animal production. In Proceedings of the symposium on animal drug useâDollars and sense. Consequently, there are good incentives for continual health and disease observations, as well as working quickly to stamp out any disease that emerges in order to maximize profits. â¢ mproved food security.
The combination of reduced population incre- ments and declining rural populations is likely to increase pressures on land resources in the future. The production of pork is about equally distributed over mixed and industrial systems, whereas the industrial system is the dominant origin of poultry meat.
Assays for zoonotic diseases such as brucellosisâwhich are simple, commonly used in developed countries, and easily deployedâare not uniformly available in developing countries. The use of antibiotics for growth promotion began in the 1940s when the poultry industry discovered that the use of tetracycline-fermentation by- products resulted in improved performance (Stokstad et al., 1949), although the mechanisms for improved performance are not completely understood.
Each driver analyzed in this chapter raises its own set of governance issues within countries and in the relations between nations. Part of this is due to greater numbers of animals.
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